By knowing the nervous system diagram labeled, you may know that this is a network of highly specialized tissues, whose main component neurons, cells that are connected together in a complex manner and which have the property of driving, using electrochemical signals (synapse), a variety of stimuli within the nervous tissue and to most other tissues and coordinating multiple functions in the body. Anatomically, the human nervous system is grouped into different organs, which actually make up stations where they spend neural pathways. Thus, for purposes of study, you can group these organs, according to their location in two parts: central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
The Central Nervous System: This consists of the brain and spinal cord, is protected by three membranes, the meninges. Inside there is a system of cavities called ventricles, circulates through which cerebrospinal fluid.
· The brain is the part of the central nervous system is protected by the skull. It consists of the brain, the cerebellum and the brain stem.
Brain: is the bulkiest. It is divided into two hemispheres, one right and one left, separated by the interhemispheric fissure and reported by the Corpus Callosum. The surface is called cerebral cortex and is formed by convolutions formed refolds called gray matter. Underlying it is the white matter. In deep areas there are areas of gray matter forming nuclei such as the thalamus, caudate nucleus or hypothalamus.
Cerebellum: It is at the bottom and back of the brain, housed in the posterior cerebral fossa near the brainstem.
Brainstem: Composed of the midbrain, pons and void the medulla oblongata. Connects the brain with the spinal cord.
· The spinal cord is an extension of the brain, as if a cord extending through the interior of the spine. It is the gray matter inside and outside white.
The Peripheral Nervous System: This consists of the nerves, cranial and spinal, emerging from the central nervous system and run throughout the body, containing axons of neural pathways with different functions and peripheral ganglia, which lie in the path of the containing nerves and cell bodies, the only outside the central nervous system.
· The cranial nerves are 12 pairs that send sensory information from the neck and head to the central nervous system. Receive motor commands to control the skeletal muscles of the neck and head.
· The spinal nerves are 31 pairs and are in charge of sending sensory information (touch, pain and temperature) of the trunk and limbs and the position and condition of the muscles and joints of the trunk and limbs to the central nervous system and from the same receive motor control of skeletal muscles that are driven by the spinal cord orders.
A less anatomical much more functional division, but it is dividing the nervous system according to the role that different neural pathways, regardless of whether they run through the central nervous system or peripheral:
Somatic Nervous System: Also called nervous system life relationship is formed by the set of neurons that regulate voluntary or conscious functions in the body (eg muscle movement, touch).
The autonomic nervous system, also called vegetative nervous system or (incorrectly) visceral nervous system consists of the set of neurons that regulate involuntary or unconscious functions in the body (eg bowel movement, visceral sensitivity).
It is noteworthy that neurons of both systems can arrive or leave the same organs if they have voluntary and involuntary functions (and, in fact, these organs are the majority). In some texts it is considered that the autonomic nervous system is a subdivision of the peripheral nervous system, but this is incorrect because, in its route, some neurons of the autonomic nervous system can pass both the central nervous system and the peripheral, which also it occurs in the somatic nervous system. The division between central and peripheral nervous system has only anatomical purposes. In turn the vegetative system is classified into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems having functions mostly antagonistic. We have in our body approximately 150,000 kilometers of nerves that run throughout our body.
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